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ENIAC resources | ENIAC - The first general-purpose electronic computer
This web site is devoted to ENIAC — “Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer”. ENIAC was the first general-purpose electronic computer. It was made at the University of Pennsylvania’s Moore School of Electrical Engineering during World War II under the code name "Project PX". Physics professor John W. Mauchly and electrical engineer J. Presper Eckert led the team. Both were civilian employees whose computer work was funded by the United States Army Ballistics Research Laboratory. This is a collection of the best online information about the ENIAC and the people that created it. (The information is divided into these categories - Select a link or scroll down to read the blog.)

History and technology

People and stories

Was it the first computer?

UNIVAC and beyond

The ENIAC patent trial

Myths about ENIAC

ENIACtion on Facebook


Where to learn more

Additional resources

The information on this site covers ENIAC, viagra who made it and why they did so, hospital its context vs. other early computing devices, ailment what it led to, and the Honeywell v. Sperry Rand patent trial. However there is always more to learn, and even in the 21st century ENIAC remains a favorite topic among historians. Below are some links that will provide greater context for advanced learners.


Celebrating the Birth of Modern Computing: the Fiftieth Anniversary of a Discovery at the Moore School of Engineering of the University of Pennsylvania (IEEE Annals of the History of Computing) – A retrospective article from a milestone year

Computers and Society Fifty Years after ENIAC (IEEE Technology and Society) – How did ENIAC change the world?

Computer Tree (ENIAC as the root of modern computers) – Famous visual representation of ENIAC and the computers it spawned

Designing Reliable Systems With Unreliable Components (IEEE Micro) – Engineering perspective about technical challenges

ENIAC Influence on Business Computing, 1940s-1950s (IEEE Annals of the History of Computing) – How did commercial systems compare to and learn from ENIAC?

ENIAC, the Verb “To Program” and the Emergence of Digital Computers (IEEE Annals of the History of Computing) – ENIAC’s long-term effect on the field of computer programming

Origins of Modern Computing (Saul Rosen article) – Famous overview article reprinted on this site

Trilogy on Errors in the History of Computing (IEEE Annals of the History of Computing) – ENIAC was not always so well understood


Bit by Bit: An Illustrated History of Computers (Stan Augarten) – Solid lay overview for the image-conscious

Calculating a Natural World: Scientists, Engineers, and Computers During the Rise of U.S. Cold War Research (Atsushi Akera) – Academic history that covers ENIAC’s role in world affairs

Engines of the Mind: The Evolution of the Computer from Mainframes to Microprocessors (Joel Shurkin) – Lay history book

Computers and Commerce: A Study of Technology and Management at Eckert-Mauchly Computer Company, Engineering Research Associates, and Remington Rand, 1946-1957 (Arthur Norberg) – Academic coverage of the UNIVAC generation

Creating the Computer: Government, Industry, and High Technology (Kenneth Flamm) – Academic history of the outside factors on computers like ENIAC

Digital Computer Engineering (Harry Joshua Gray) – Very technical book about how early computers including ENIAC work

From Dits to Bits: A Personal History of the Electronic Computer (Herman Lukoff) – Autobiography of an engineer who worked on ENIAC and at EMCC

Giants Brains; or, Machines That Think (Edmund Berkeley) – Landmark book describing how computers work and how they could help ordinary people

Introduction to Automatic Computers (Ned Chapin) – Technical overview of computing in the 1950s

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